A Guide to Snubber Capacitor Selection for SiC-Based Switching Converters
17 Mei 2022
Today, most converter circuits now include semiconductors and switches made of silicon carbide (SiC) instead of plain old silicon (Si). This is because when silicon and carbon are combined, the resulting material, SiC, has excellent mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Therefore, SiC-based converters can handle voltages up to 10 times greater than converters using just Si while also offering lower losses. These characteristics make these converters an excellent option for applications such as power electronics, industrial devices, and electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. In this first post, we dive into the advantages of using snubber circuits to protect SiC-based converters and discuss how to further increase these efficiencies by focusing on capacitor selection.
When switching occurs quickly, dv/dt and di/dt increase, which, when coupled with stray inductance, can result in a large surge voltage and/or current. To be sure you do not exceed the maximum rated voltage/current of the device, a method to control surge voltage and current is needed. One efficient way to do this is to use a snubber circuit.
SLCs vs. MLCCs: Which Capacitor Type is Right for My Application?
11 February 2022
Capacitors are essential passive components for designing any electrical circuit. But there are so many options to choose from with a wide range of specifications that it can be overwhelming to determine what capacitor may be the best fit for your application. One early decision that circuit designers must make is to determine if a single-layer capacitor (SLC) or multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) is the right fit for their application needs.
At a high-level, these capacitor types seem similar as both SLCs and MLCCs can be used for charging and storing, filtering, or bypass functions in a circuit. To determine which one is the best fit for your application, let’s first look at the basic structure of each capacitor type. SLCs are the most basic capacitor type available since these capacitors consist of a single layer of dielectric material, or insulating layer, sandwiched between a positive and a negative electrode.
Striking a Balance for Spectrum Needs: 5G Communications vs. Aircraft Altimeter Operations
20 Januari 2022
At this point, you’ve likely seen a slew of mainstream news articles about 5G causing safety concerns around air travel. In fact, ahead of the rollout of new 5G services from major US telecom companies including Verizon and AT&T on Jan. 19, 2022, many international airlines canceled or delayed flights to major US airports where they believed 5G signals could possibly interfere with the radar signals required to properly operate landing equipment on their planes.
To understand why these airlines took these actions, let’s first look at the root of their concerns. In late 2020 into early 2021, the United States Federal Communications Committee (FCC) held Auction 107 to re-allocate bandwidth from 3.7GHz to 3.98GHz for mobile telecommunication operations. This portion of the spectrum is known as the C band by the FCC and the telecom industry, which can be confusing because the IEEE radar band known as the C band covers 4GHz to 8GHz. The 5G NR FR1 bands that fall in this range are n77 and n78.
Webinar: Addressing MLCC Performance Issues in High-Voltage EV Applications
20 Januari 2022
In recent years, multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) have emerged as an excellent capacitor option for the high-power electrical systems needed in electric vehicle (EVs) due to their small physical size, low inductance, and ability to operate at higher temperatures. However, EV engineers are facing two big challenges with using MLCCs including DC bias that can cause capacitance loses of 80 to 90 percent of their quoted value and self-heating issues from AC ripple that can lead to inefficiencies in circuits as well as increased cooling demands.
These MLCC performance issues related to capacitance loss from DC bias and self-heating due to AC ripple are currently hot topics for electrical engineers working on EVs. This is largely because EV battery system efficiency can be greatly improved if capacitance loss and self-heating issues are eliminated. Not only is battery and charging efficiency important to consumers, but from an engineering perspective, if the battery can run cooler, the number of parts needed to cool the system can be reduced, lowering the weight of the vehicle. And, anytime weight is brought down, aerodynamic drag is reduced and less energy is needed to drive the vehicle, inherently increasing the vehicle’s range.
On-Demand Webinar: The Importance of High Reliability for Medical Implantable Devices
06 Januari 2021
If you are a medical device engineer working to improve the longevity for implantable devices such as pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps, cochlear devices, or bladder stimulators, be sure to checkout our latest on-demand webinar
In this webinar, we start by exploring the basics of capacitor functionality inside an implantable medical device. We then look at how the demand to increase capacitance in these devices in a safe way can be done using multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). We also explore some of the benefits and considerations of using high-reliability MLCCs as opposed to standard MLCCs in medical implantable devices. We wrap-up the webinar by walking through the specifications and requirements for performing high reliability testing of the capacitors used in these devices.
Expanding Our Filter Technology Offerings to Serve Low-Frequency Applications
16 December 2021
This year, Knowles Precision Devices acquired Integrated Microwave Corporation (IMC), a leader in the design and manufacture of custom precision RF microwave filters and multiplexers for the aerospace, defense, and communications industries. This acquisition was particularly exciting as our two companies share deep expertise in engineering high-performance ceramics for RF and microwave applications. And, like Knowles Precision Devices, IMC also has a long heritage of supplying highly reliable components for mission critical space devices that includes applications such as the MARS Orbiters, MARS Landers, and MARS Rovers.
While our business goals and target application areas are nicely aligned, the acquisition of IMC also helps us expand our offerings to serve applications operating in the lower portion of the frequency range from the VHF to the L band. While we have always offered RF and microwave products that excel at filtering in applications operating from the S to the Ka band, now we have a complete range of RF and microwave filtering solutions that support applications from the VHF to the Ka band.
New Low Loss, Ultra Stable High-Capacitance MLCCs for Power Electronics
07 December 2021
Many power electronics today are being designed for use in high-temperature, high-voltage environments, such as inside electric vehicles (EVs). However, size, weight, and power (SWaP) are also key factors driving electronic product development. These conflicting design criteria are an issue for many electrical engineers because space is not available to simply add a cooling system, as this will add weight and increase the product’s overall footprint. Therefore, many of these electronic components are susceptible to “running hot” at the high temperatures and high voltages used in these tiny spaces.
At Knowles Precision Devices, we thought we could balance these two conflicting demands through dielectric material innovation. And we were right. With our newest line of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) built with Hiteca™, we can deliver high capacitance stability over high temperature and voltage as well as lower parasitic losses under common operating conditions.
Simplify Capacitor Dielectric Selection by Understanding Dielectric Coding Methods
28 October 2021
When designing a ceramic capacitor, the type of dielectric used will influence the characteristics of the capacitor and define its electrical behavior. At a high level, there are two types of dielectrics made with ceramics – paraelectric and ferroelectric. Dielectrics containing paraelectric (or non-ferroelectric) ceramics are known as Class I dielectrics. These dielectrics show a linear relationship of polarization to voltage and are formulated to have a linear temperature coefficient. Capacitors using a Class I dielectric have high stability across various temperatures, but have low permittivity, which means the capacitor will offer low capacitance.
Dielectrics that contain ferroelectric ceramics are known as Class II dielectrics. These dielectrics provide a much higher permittivity, but the capacitance value is much less consistent over the temperature range. Class II dielectrics offer much higher dielectric constants than Class I dielectrics, but have less stable properties with regards to temperature, voltage, frequency, and time.
A Custom Approach to Large Capacitor Assembly
22 October 2021
Achieving high capacitance means going big. But how do you do that while still maximizing board space? At Knowles Precision Devices, we’ve developed a new method for building customizable large capacitor assemblies that capitalize on the vertical space above the circuit board. While stacked capacitor assemblies have been around for many years, these parts do not have very good bump and vibration withstand due to the thin leads used in their construction. These new assemblies from Knowles Precision Devices offer a ruggedized construction capable of withstanding high levels of shock and vibration. This offers a unique combination of capability, durability, high capacitance, and very high voltage in a smaller area, making these capacitors ideal for automotive, military, and aerospace applications.
Our large capacitor assemblies are highly customizable both in height and shape and are built with reliability in mind. For these assemblies, we use large diameter pins that can handle high ripple currents and contact to the internal electrodes through a 360º connection, reducing resistive and inductive losses. The pins are mechanically decoupled from ceramic elements, allowing the assembly to withstand severe mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature variations. We also use a low-loss, ultra-stable C0G dielectric and have a high capacitance range of 10nF to 3.9µF and a voltage range from 500Vdc to 5000Vdc. These capacitor assemblies have also been through a variety of qualification tests as shown in Table 1 to demonstrate their capability.
Managing High-Temperature Electronics Environments Down to the Component Level
22 October 2021
As complex electronic systems become more prevalent in our daily lives, the demand for high-temperature, high-reliability components continues to increase. Standard electronic components have an operating temperature of -55 °C to 125 °C, but the number of applications requiring functionality above 125 °C is growing. Components in these applications, like capacitors, must maintain their functionality and take the heat (literally and figuratively) while powered. To meet the brief, material and design of these high-temperature components must deviate from today’s standard.
Initially, applications like down-hole oil and gas drilling were better known for having high-temperature component needs. Down-hole operations require drilling several kilometers into the earth’s surface with working conditions exceeding 200 °C. The deeper the drilling operation, the more resilient components need to be. If components can’t reliably perform under high temperatures, it’s very difficult to repair or replace a failed component when operations are in progress deep underground. This kind of interruption could cause work to halt, leading to significant financial loss.
Webinar: High-Reliability MLCCs for Medical Implantable Applications
22 October 2021
When it comes to implantable medical devices, the cost of failure is extremely high, both in terms of monetary costs and potential human risks. Therefore, ensuring high reliability for all parts, including electronic components required for medical devices, is critical. Capacitors are one of the many components that need to meet these reliability demands.
In this webinar, we will start by providing an overview of the role of a capacitor in a circuit as well as the considerations and benefits of using multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) in medical implantable devices. We will also cover the details on the requirements and standards medical grade capacitors need to be built to as well as the specific testing requirements and failure modes of these components.
Webinar: RF Components in Emerging SATCOM Applications
8 October 2021
In recent years, the focus for satellite communication (SATCOM) applications has shifted from coverage to capacity. As a result, SATCOM devices are being pushed to operate at higher bandwidths in the Ka, V, and E bands. At the same time, these devices need to be made increasingly smaller, which means smallsats, or satellites weighing less than 500 kg, are quickly gaining momentum, making size, weight, and power (SWaP) critical design considerations as well.
During this webinar, we touch on several trends in SATCOM design today as well as the key technologies helping SATCOM design engineers balance bandwidth and size requirements. We start by providing a brief overview of why more bandwidth is key to achieving the incredibly fast data rates desired today. We then explore the impacts of operating at higher frequencies in the Ka and E bands to increase bandwidth. At these higher bandwidths, directivity and gain are increased, there is more spectrum available in general, and antenna size is decreased, which all together help SATCOM designers increase data rates while reducing device size.
Solving Tough Technical Challenges Through Agility and Experience
9 September 2021
At Knowles Precision Devices, we thrive on working with companies who want to take technically challenging ideas and work through the details to figure out how to turn their seemingly impossible ideas into reality. This is because we are not limited to volume production and have extensive experience making specialty and custom parts. We are also familiar with the challenges associated with delivering high-reliability components as we supply many industries and applications that depend on the consistent functionality of custom-shaped parts. For example, we provide numerous space grade components and we are the only manufacturer who has developed planar array ceramic parts for the International Space Station.
In addition, we have a long heritage providing a variety of components to medical device manufacturers for both implantable devices and test equipment. We also specialize in creating higher voltage capacitors and continue to increase the voltages we can work at while most of our competitors specialize in low voltages and continue to focus on even lower voltage parts. Therefore, when Resonant Link approached us to develop uniquely shaped, highly efficient windings with low equivalent series resistance (ESR) and high-quality factor (Q) for wireless charging, we were excited about the opportunity. Even though we knew nothing existed that could satisfy all these requirements, we did what many companies would not have the ability to do – we began discussing options with different sites within our organization to figure out a solution. Because we are an agile company, as we discussed our ideas, we landed on a solution that would take best practices from two of the co-existing technologies we specialize in – our planar line and our chip line – to produce this custom part.
White Paper Knowles Medical
31 August 2021
Capacitors are one of the many components that contribute to the overall longevity of an implantable medical device; making a small component change could extend its reliability, and even its lifespan, by preventing battery related complications. Here we begin to explore the cost of device failures and how proper reliability testing and supplier considerations can help you navigate capacitor sourcing for your medical device application.
Advances in medical devices and medical implantables continue to improve patient outcomes in a range of applications from pace makers to pain management. Building and designing health solutions that stay in step with innovation takes dedication from research and development, regulatory and operations among others. nWhen applying the business lens, balancing value and reliability is a constant consideration. Patient safety is paramount; however, making effective cost decisions becomes increasingly complex when other factors are on the line. When implantable devices fail, everyone pays a price—including patients.
Making a Reduced Form Factor, High-Performance Switch Filter Bank a Reality
19 August 2021
Many critical military operations around the world are increasingly relying on a variety of electronic warfare devices for a range of threat suppression, detection, and neutralization activities. This means that numerous devices operating across the RF spectrum including low-frequency devices in the VHF band and mmWave devices in the Ka band are necessary. As shown in Figure 1, when many electronic warfare devices are in use, a large number of signals are being sent and received and crossing paths. Therefore, it’s easy for any one of these devices to experience issues with interference if proper filtering techniques are not in place.
To further complicate this scenario, many military applications today need to be used in increasingly smaller spaces such as unmanned platforms, aircrafts, ships, or tanks, making size, weight, and power (SWaP) a big concern. Thus, to filter out unwanted signals in a crowded RF environment, more components cannot simply be added to a device to get the job done. Instead, the ideal solution to this complex filtering issue would be a compact, lightweight wideband tuner architecture with the ability to intelligently acquire and filter signals from a wide number of bands. However, developing this type of component presents quite a few challenges.
A Comprehensive Guide to Our Build-to-Print Services and Thin-Film Technology
12 August 2021
At Knowles Precision Devices, we are not trying to be your typical commodity component manufacturer. We want to do things that are hard and help customers solve their most difficult engineering challenges. This is why over the past three decades we have focused on manufacturing high-frequency, high Q components that can function reliably, even in the most demanding applications. Additionally, since every application has different needs, we offer a wide-variety of off-the-shelf catalog solutions, build-to-print services, and even the ability to work closely with customers to create custom thin-film solutions.
The marriage of ceramic expertise, manufacturing know-how, product quality, customer service, product customization, and clever microwave and RF design engineering allows us to offer this variety, while many of our competitors cannot. To provide a better understanding of our build-to-print services in general and the breadth of our offerings, as well as how our thin-film technology can benefit your applications, we’ve put together this Build-to-Print Basics ebook.
Build-to-Print Basics Part 15: Military and Space Grade Applications
12 August 2021
To provide a better understanding of build-to-print in general and the breadth of our offerings, as well as how our thin-film technology can benefit your applications, we’ve put together a Build-to-Print Basics series. In this final post of our Build-to-Print Basics series, we discuss the quality standards we follow to ensure our components are qualified for military and space grade applications as well as the additional testing or spec design we can perform as needed by our customers.
At Knowles Precision Devices, we know it takes high-quality and high-reliability electronic components to meet the rigorous standards required for military and space applications. After all, when launching expensive mission-critical equipment into space or using highly sophisticated electronic warfare devices to protect your citizens, there is no room for failure. Therefore, we build all our components, including those we develop for build-to-print customers, to MIL-STD-883, a standard that “establishes uniform methods, controls, and procedures for testing microelectronic devices suitable for use within military and aerospace electronic systems.”
Watch Our Menlo Micro Switch Summit Presentation Today
12 August 2021
During the first-ever virtual Menlo Micro Switch Summit, Knowles Precision Devices joined John Richardson, founder and president of X-Microwave, and Tom Clickenbeard, applications engineer at Menlo Microsystems, to give a presentation on Prototyping Using X-Microwave’s XM-Blocks with Knowles Precision Devices RF Filters and MEMS Switches.
During the presentation, Richardson first provides an overview of X-Microwave’s modular platform for designing and producing high-performance RF and microwave systems. He also touches on how Knowles Precision Devices’ thin-film RF filters can be used with the X-Microwave platform. Then, Clickenbeard provides a brief demo of the performance obtained using the X-Microwave prototyping station, our bandpass filters, and Menlo Microsystems switches to make a 4-chanel filter bank. Finally, we wrap up the presentation by looking at an application-specific use case for this type of technology by discussing considerations for switch filter banks and the shift to using fully digital beamforming in phased arrays for electronic warfare applications.
Fully Digital Beamforming – An Excellent Option for Emerging Military Applications
As early adopters of beamforming technology in the 1960s, aerospace and defense organizations have a lot of experience using the initial large-scale active electronically scanned arrays (AESAs) for military radar tracking applications. But these arrays aren’t as convenient for some applications today as the operational frequencies of the targets of interest for many military applications are increasing. This means the wavelengths of the signals that need to be monitored are getting shorter and these radar applications need denser arrays since antenna spacing needs to be set at one half the wavelength. For example, at 25GHz, the wavelength in free space is approximately 12mm (0.47”), leading to half-wave spacing for antennas of 6mm (0.24”). Also, as arrays become denser, the new challenge for RF system designers is avoiding interference in these tighter spaces, especially when transmitting signals.
Therefore, there are a number of benefits that fully digital beamforming can potentially bring to many emerging military applications – especially those in the electronic warfare space. First, at a high level, fully digital beamforming has a dedicated analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for every antenna element. The allows the array to simultaneously acquire and transmit multiple beams, and beams can be split in various directions at the same time without having interference issues and all while improving dynamic range.
Build-to-Print Basics Part 14: Testing
To provide a better understanding of build-to-print in general and the breadth of our offerings, as well as how our thin-film technology can benefit your applications, we’ve put together a Build-to-Print Basics series. In part 14 we discuss a range of non-standard testing services our facilities can provide when needed by our build-to-print customers.
Therefore, these receivers need to operate across an extremely wide range of bandwidths to pick up and understand signals anywhere from 300MHz to 20GHz and beyond. However, a basic general wideband antenna isn’t sufficient for these applications because selectivity is needed to determine what you are actually listening to.While any testing beyond validation testing is not a standard practice for build-to-print, since we also offer build-to-spec and custom design services in-house, our engineers are well equipped to perform a wide range of tests on our build-to-print products if needed by a customer. From basic quality tests to qualification testing to classified tests some government contractors need to comply with DD254, we offer a wide range of testing capabilities that many of our competitors cannot provide.
Webinar: Addressing Filtering Challenges in Digital Broadband Receivers for Electronic Warfare Applications
Today, electronic warfare applications need to detect a wide variety of signals ranging from UHF communications to GPS and other data signals in the L band to high-frequency radar signals that can fall in the X, S, or K bands.
Therefore, these receivers need to operate across an extremely wide range of bandwidths to pick up and understand signals anywhere from 300MHz to 20GHz and beyond. However, a basic general wideband antenna isn’t sufficient for these applications because selectivity is needed to determine what you are actually listening to.
Additionally, as if the task of designing an ultra-wideband receiver with selectivity wasn’t challenging enough, RF designers are simultaneously facing pressure to reduce the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of these applications as well.
Detonation Capacitors and EFI
Explosives are dangerous by design. For applications involving detonation, like munition and down-hole exploration, explosives should be built to avoid unintentional or premature detonation caused by any rise in temperature or shock. These applications require a number of specialty components including capacitors that discharge high energy at temperatures up to 200°C.
Typically, detonation capacitors initiate an explosion by delivering a pulse of energy that’s previously charged up and stored in the ceramic field between the capacitor plates. Then, the stored energy is released through the electrodes. Pulse energy capacitors are built specifically to handle reliable operation under single or multiple pulse conditions. They employ a method of detonation that requires firing into exploding foil initiators (EFI) to avoid premature explosion.
Build-to-Print Basics Part 13: Bias Networks
To provide a better understanding of build-to-print in general and the breadth of our offerings, as well as how our thin-film technology can benefit your applications, we’ve put together a Build-to-Print Basics series. In part 13 we provide an overview of how we use our build-to-print process and thin-film expertise to develop bias networks that support the functionality of active microwave components while also minimizing the space needed in a circuit for certain components and simplifying circuit assembly.
In our previous post in this series, we discussed a variety of passive microwave components, or integrated passive devices (IPDs), that we can design and develop as part of our build-to-print services. In this post, we expand on this with the details of a type of IPD, the bias network, that is commonly made with thin-film processes but used to support active microwave components such as amplifiers. To start at the beginning, as you likely know, biasing is the process of getting DC voltage from point A to point B in the most appropriate way in a circuit. A bias network assists with this by combining capacitors and resistors in a specified way to best meet the specific needs of the device where the circuit will be used. To make a bias network, the necessary components are fabricated on the same substrate. This means that this section of the circuit can be ‘abstracted’ out as a single component, which saves on space and assembly cost.
Visit Knowles Precision Devices at IMS 2021 In-Person or Virtually
Whether you’re stopping by the International Microwave Symposium (IMS) in person at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta this week, or preparing to attend virtually from June 20 – 25, you can join the team at Knowles Precision Devices for some exciting information and presentations.
At the in-person conference you can find us exhibiting at booth 1913, while during the virtual show we will have members of our team available at our virtual booth at all times. At our booths we will showcase our high-performance, high-frequency components for industries such as aerospace and defense where reliability is key. We will also demonstrate the capabilities of some of our latest products such as the 100nF V80 Bypass Capacitor – a revolutionary capacitor for the industry as it is the first single-layer capacitor to feature an operating voltage of 50V in .084” x .042” package.
Your Quick Guide to Trimmer Capacitor Selection – Part 2
In part 1 of this two-part guide, we talked about the trade-offs you need to make when selecting the type of capacitor that will be the best fit for your application and the basics of trimmer capacitor design including dielectric material options. This second post focuses more on the details of trimmer capacitor specs and how to determine what’s right for your application.
Once you have decided a trimmer capacitor is a good fit for your application, there are numerous additional decisions to make. In addition to the many dielectric options, trimmer capacitors are also available in numerous package styles, including those designed for PCB mounting, panel mounting, and surface-mount applications. Trimmer capacitors are even available for low-temperature applications in cryogenic systems and manufactured without magnetic materials for use in critical industrial and medical applications such as MRI systems.
Overcoming EMI in Electric Vehicle Applications
According to the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2020 was the fifth consecutive year of growth in electric vehicle (EV) sales, and the demand is growing. Based on the first quarter numbers, the Bureau anticipates 2021 sales are on a path to surpass last year’s.
As production ramps up, it’s clear that EVs present a number of unique challenges, including greater susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI). EVs employ high-power electronics to operate the electrical engine, producing high-level, low-frequency EMI. Interference is a common problem across electronics applications, but when we consider EV applications, where safety, efficiency, and performance rely on electronics, high levels of EMI could cause dangerous complications.
Your Quick Guide to Trimmer Capacitor Selection – Part 1
As you already know, capacitors are essential circuit elements for storing and suppling charge on demand. For inductors and resistors, capacitors act as the building blocks of passive circuits and the supporting components for active circuits. While a wide range of fixed-value capacitors are used in most electrical circuits, it is sometimes preferable, or necessary, to use a component with a variable capacitance range.
These variable capacitors are known as trimmer capacitors because these capacitors can be used to trim the performance of both active and passive circuits. These components allow for variable tuning – think oscillator frequency values or rise and fall times. Additionally, if values drift over the life of a device, trimmer capacitors can be recalibrated as needed. For sensitive applications like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these components help optimize performance where any instability in time or temperature could impact the image output.
Join Us Virtually at The Battery Show Europe 2021
Join Knowles Precision Devices and many members of the advanced battery and EV/HEV community from May 18 – 20 at this year’s virtual edition of The Battery Show Europe. Since this year’s show has been designed to virtually recreate the tradeshow experience from the comfort and safety of your own home or office, we will be exhibiting a variety of our advanced battery technology at virtual booth 8-351.
At our booth, you can learn more about the numerous high-reliability components we design and develop for use even in the harshest EV/HEV environments. This includes a range of multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) and surface-mount EMI filters that are qualified to the AEC-Q200 rev D standards, do not require additional component-level qualification testing, and are approved for a voltage rating of 4kV.
Build-to-Print Basics Part 12: Custom Microwave Components
To provide a better understanding of build-to-print in general and the breadth of our offerings, as well as how our thin-film technology can benefit your applications, we’ve put together a Build-to-Print Basics series. In part 12, we tie everything we’ve discussed so far together and provide more specifics about how we use the processes and options detailed throughout this series to create the custom microwave components you need.
Throughout this series, we’ve talked a lot about the processes we follow and options we make available to our customers – from substrate selection to via designs – through our build-to-print process. While it’s clear we can customize basically every part of a circuit, you may be wondering, what components or devices can we actually design and develop for customers using these processes and our expertise? Let’s explore the possibilities in this post.